A baby starts as a single cell formed by the fusion of a/an egg and sperm sperm and an ovum oocyte and polar body non of the above.
Primary oocyte undergoes meiosis I meiosis II meitosis meitosis I.
Secondary oocyte and a polar body each have ___ chromosones 48 24 46 23.
Birth occurs about ____weeks of prenatal growth and development 40 36 38 39.
Secondary oocyte is ovulated from the egg and travels slowly towards the urethra uterus ovaries none of the above.
To fertilize an ovum, sperm use acrosomal enzymes follicular cells plasma membrane prostaglandins.
Fertilization occurs when the sperm and ovum nuclei fuse to form a oocyte zygote meiosis II prostaglandis.
Increases cell number without increasing cell size cleavage morula blastocyst trophoblast.
When the preembryo reaches the uterus, it is called blastocyst cleavage morula trophoblast.
Further mitotic divisions form a hollow ball of cells called blastocyst trophoblast cleavage morula.
Implantation begins day __ and completes on day __ 7, 14 6,12 5,10 4,8.
HCG is produced by mural blastocyte celss cleavage cells trophoblast cells.
Maintains high levels of progesterone and estrogen progesterone HCG placenta estrogen .
Levels of both estrogen and progesterone rise during ovulation sexual acitvity sleep pregnancy.
Embryonic stage begins at the end of____ and completes at the end of___ day 7, day 14 2nd week, 8th week day 4, day 8 3rd week, 12th week.
forms from the inner cell mass embryonic disc mamary gland estrogen placenta .
Forms nervous system and epidermis ectoderm mesoderm endoderm mensenchyms.
Forms muscles, bones, blood, and all connective tissues ectoderm endoderm mesoderm mensenchyms.
Forms lining of digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract mensenchyms endoderm ectoderm mesoderm.
Outermost membrane yolk sack chorion amnion embyrio .
Extensions of trophoblast that have grown into endometrium chorionic villi amnionic fluid amnion yolk sac.
Forms dorsal to the embryo amnion amniotic fluid chorion chorionic fuid.
Formed ventral to the embryo, forms early blood cells, branches and forms the allantois amnion chorionic fluid chorion yolk sac.
Forms blood cells, brings embryonic blood vessels to placenta chorion amnion yolk sac Allantois.
Allantois and yolk sac form the amnion zygote umbilical cord placenta.
Disk shaped structure formed of both embryonic and maternal tissues placenta umbilical cord embryo yolk sac.
Umbilical cord attaches the embryo to the endometirum chorion amnion placenta.
By week _ head and limb buds are recognizable 9 4 3 6.
By week _ rudiments of organs are present 5 9 6 7.
Begins at the end of the 8th week and continues throughout pregnancy fetal development embryo formation meiosis III external apperance .
Two placental hormones play a role in initiating the birth process estrogen, relaxin estrogen, testosterone progesterone, DHEA melatonin, calcitonin .
Carries O2 and nutrient rich blood to fetus from placenta ductus venosus umbilical vein inferior vena cava foramen ovale .
Empties blood into inferior vena cava umbilical vein ovale right atrium ductus venosus.
Opening between the right atrium and left atrium ductus arteriosus foramen ovale ductus venosus umbilical vein.
Blood that does enter the right ventricle passes from the pulmonary trunk and into the aortic arch umbilical ligaments umbilical arteries foramen ovale ductus arteriosus.
Form from internal iliac arteries; carry CO2 and waste rich blood to placenta umbilical arteries foramen ovale ductus arteriosus umbilical vein.
contracts smooth muscles in lactiferous ducts PRH oxytocin colostrum mammary glands .
Late pregnancy,Increased blood pressure, edema, proteinuria preeclampsia eclampsia ectopic pregnancy miscarriage.
Spontaneous abortion;Occurs due to gross embryo or placental abnormalities; Also due to alterations in estrogen and progesterone levels miscarriage ectopic pregnancy eclampsia preeclampsia.
Can lead to death and convulsions for fetus and mother; Pregnancy may need to be terminated preeclampsia eclampsia ectopic pregnancy miscarriage.
Implantation of embryo anywhere except the uterus;Treatment is surgical removal of the embryo eclampsia preeclampsia ectopic pregnancy miscarriage.
Substances or influences that produce physical abnormalitiesExample: drugs, X rays, German measlesFetal alcohol syndrome inherited IRDS physiological jaundice teratogens.
RBCs are destroyed faster then the liver can remove bilirubin; Phototherapy speeds up bilirubin breakdown physiological jaundice IRDS teratogens inherited.
Infant crib death; Most common cause of death in newborns; Possible cause is insufficient surfactant physiological jaundice IRDS inherited teratogens.
Determiners of hereditary traits are chromosomes True False.
DNA controls inheritance and directs cell functions True False.
Body cells possess 23 chromosomes or 46 pairs of chromosomes True False.
Karyotype is an enlarged photograph of chromosomes True False.
Narrow tube is inserted through the cervix and fetal tissueChorionic tissue is then suctioned out, Fetal cells are analyzed for abnormalities, Performed beginning at 10 weeks Chorionic villi sampling Amniocentesis Ultrasound Genetic counseling.
A hollow needle is inserted into the abdomen and uterus; Withdraw a sample of amniotic fluid; Analyze fetal cells and proteins for chromosomal abnormalities and structure defects; Done after week 14 Ultrasound Chorionic villi sampling Amniocentesis Genetic counseling.
X-linked recessive disorders; Due to missing clotting factors; Prolonged bleeding can be fatal; treatments include transfusions of missing clotting factors Tay-Sachs disease Hemophilia A or B Huntingtons disease Phenylketonuria.
Due to 1 or more missing enzymes needed for cellular respiration; Buildup of lactic acid in neurons occurs; Symptoms include memory loss and personality changes; No symptoms occur until ages 30-50; Death occurs within 15 years of onset Phenylketonuria Tay-Sachs disease Hemophilia A and hemophilia B Huntingtons disease.
Recessive disorder; Lack an enzyme to metabolize phenylalanine; Requires a diet free of phenylalanine; No treatment can cause mental and physical retardation Phenylketonuria Huntingtons disease Tay-Sachs disease Hemophilia A and hemophilia B.
Recessive disorder; Affects Jews of central European descent; Due to the lack of an enzyme to metabolize a fatty substance associated with neurons; Symptoms include mental retardation and seizures; Death occurs by age 2 Hemophilia A and hemophilia B Huntingtons disease Tay-Sachs disease Phenylketonuria.
Recessive disorder; Most common genetic disorder among Caucasians; Due to a missing chloride channel on mucus-secreting cells; Develop thick mucus in respiratory passageways; Death from respiratory infections Cystic fibrosis Phenylketonuria Tay-Sachs disease Huntingtons disease.
Problems arise from changes in specific genes, rather then whole chromosomes;Disorders usually affect metabolism at birth or later in life Single gene disorders Down syndrome Chromosome abnormalities Phenylketonuria.
Due to presence of extra chromosome 21; Symptoms include mental retardation, short stature, and protruding tongue Chromosome abnormalities X-linked traits Single gene disorders Down syndrome.
height, intelligence, skin pigment concentration Polygenes Multiple alleles Codominance Recessive alleles .
Expressed only when both recessive alleles are present Recessive alleles Dominant alleles Multiple alleles Polygenes.
Phenotype isthe expression of those genes that can be seen True False.
Genotype-The genes present in a group True False.
Alleles are two or less alternate forms of a gene controlling a trait True False.
Males possess the X and Y chromosomes True False.
An egg fertilized by a Y sperm will be female True False.
An egg fertilized by a X sperm will be female True False.
Fetal and adult circulations are identical True False.
Once first breath is performed, surfactant helps prevent lung collapse True False.
By week 4 head and limb buds are recognizable True False.
Fertilization occurs when the sperm and ovum nuclei fuse to form a zygote True False.
Only a few thousand sperm reach the uterine tubes True False.