_____ investigations involve investigating crimes _____ they happen, as a _____ strategy.
_____ investigations are the more _____ investigative activities that take place _____ a crime has been committed.
Reactive crime investigation has two major phases.
preliminary investigation, often conducted by _____.
follow-up or continuing investigation conducted by .
The _____ investigation usually begins when you (the uniformed officer) _____ at the scene of a reported and/or witnessed crime, and ends when you file your _____.
As the preliminary investigating officer, you must _____, _____, and use as much _____ from the scene as possible.
anything offered in court to prove the truth or falsity of a fact in issue.
The most successful investigations have three major components:.
The nature and location of emergency is described. Officer begins to plan his/her response; requests additional resources, and notifies dispatch of arrival on scene.
Officer assesses the situation, makes decision on whether to enter situation or wait for backup (this should include an assessmente for biohazards and the need for protective gear).
Officer takes steps to calm subjects and the scene. .
Officer takes steps to protect life and evidence.
Officer continues to evaluate the situation, coordinates additional officers or other resources, and continues to communicate.
The officer debriefs self and subject, and restores scene back to the ordinary state.
Officer collects and records information, evidence, and all action taken. .
Death investigations, while a regular part of law enforcement duties, present two problems that most other investigations do not:.
Because of the fragility of evidence, you must always treat any questionable death as a _____ until you rule it out.
there _____ be an autopsy of any _____ who dies while in custody of the Department of Justice and confined to a correctional facility.
an autopsy _____ be performed on any child _____ who dies suddenly and unexpectedly under circumstances indicating the death may have been caused by Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). .
Removal of the body for examination must be coordinated between the _____ and the _____ or _____.
The report by a _____ or (in counties with coroners) a _____ will determine the cause of death.
The investigation into a death will cover the _____, _____, and _____ of death. .
The _____ is the disease or injury that produced the fatal end result. .
The _____ is the method, instrument or weapon, which produced the fatal injury.
The _____ refers to whether the death was natural, a result of homicide, suicide, or accident.
the coroner or medical examiner is to receive immediate notification of any death in which there are _____, _____, or _____ circumstances.
a _____ is an elected position that does not require any medical expertise.
A _____ is an appointed position, and the holder must be a physician qualified in pathology.
By statute, any county with a population of _____ or more must use a _____.
can a county have a coroner and a medical examiner?.
A few hours after a person dies, the joints of the body stiffen and become locked in place.
The phenomenon is caused by the skeletal muscles partially contracting. The muscles are unable to relax, so the joints become fixed in place.
begins approximately 1 - 6 hours after death, maximizes at 6 24 hours, and disappears from the body in 12 36 hours after death.
an unreliable method for indicating the time of death as illness; temperature, activity before death and the physical conditions surrounding the body affect it.
When the heart stops pumping blood, the blood tends to settle at the bodys lowest points.
begins soon after death, and continues for the first 8-12 hours after death.
discoloration of the skin, the area where the settling occurs is usually dark blue or purplesometimes looking rather like a bruise.
The location where it appears reflects the position of the body immediately after death. Discoloration will not occur where there is pressure on the body from an object or clothing.
The body begins to cool once death has set in, and the temperature of the body can be used to estimate the time of death, although that alone is not a reliable indicator. .
Many factors influence the rate at which the body cools: the environment, including the ambient temperature, clothing or wrapping on the body, the victims size, the victim's age, and the level of activity or lack of activity just preceding death.
changes body tissues over time, starting at the time of death. A blue-green discoloration of the skin from bacteria begins the process.
Within 72 hours, the body starts bloating from the formation of gases in the body cavities. After the first three days, there is skin slippage (continuing for up to a week), adipocere (spongy look to the skin with prolonged exposure to moisture), mummification (drying), and skeletonization (weeks to years).
Within _____, the body starts bloating from the formation of gases in the body cavities.
After the _____, there is skin slippage (continuing for up to _____).
After the first three days, there is _____ (continuing for up to a week), .
spongy look to the skin with prolonged exposure to moisture.
adipocere (spongy look to the skin with prolonged exposure to _____).
what are the 5 steps to decomposition.
Livor Mortis, begins _____ after death, and continues for the first _____ after death.
Rigor mortis begins approximately _____ after death, maximizes at _____, and disappears from the body in _____ after death.
Some of the warning signs for a person at risk for suicide are
change in _____ and _____ habits
drop in _____ or _____
loss of _____ in work, favorite activies, friends, and family.
Two specific clues to suicide are _____ and _____.
In death cases, you should ask if anyone _____ or _____ the victims body in any way.
Blunt-force trauma can produce a variety of injuries, including these: .
will leave a mark or pattern of bruising.
These are usually located over bony parts of body and may be surrounded by contusions.
Friction has produced a scrape on the skin. As with contusions, the injury may be patterned.
These are localized swellings caused by leakage of blood from damaged blood vessels.
Blunt-force trauma may cause broken bones.
In death cases, you should ask if anyone _____ or _____ the victims body in any way.
As in any criminal investigation, you must _____ and _____ the crime scene, including any _____ crime scenes.
As in any criminal investigation, you must remain _____, _____, _____, and _____ in your search and documentation of the crime scene and collection of evidence.
Your investigation will begin at the _____, where the body is originally found. Remember that it may or may not be the location where death occurred.
However, because of the importance of the crime scene, you must also apply these three basic principles in your preliminary investigation:.
to protect all evidentiary materials before they are destroyed, altered, or lost.
The single most important piece of evidence at the scene is .
anything and everything should be considered as evidence, both _____ and _____, and must be noted completely and accurately.
anything and everything should be considered as evidence, both testimonial and physical, and must be noted _____ and _____.
anything and everything should be considered as proof both testimonial and physical, and must be noted completely and accurately.
is suicide in Wisconsin a crime?.
you should always treat a _____ as a _____ until that possibility has been eliminated. .
Sometimes a death investigation is begun even when there is _____.
Death investigations present some distinctive investigative problems:
You must determine whether a _____ has been _____
The victim cannot _____.
While you may not be responsible for all the follow-up in an investigation, two activities may fall to you:.
Additional witnesses/victims can often be located through the use of a neighborhood _____.
The scope of the _____ should include routes taken by the victim or suspect and any locations from which the scene could be observed or heard.
The information from a _____ may also help establish the approximate time the crime occurred, add information about the victim (or suspect), and may even identify the suspect's escape route.
A _____, _____, and _____ could be obtained by maintaining contact during ambulance transport.
Keep in mind that a crime scene is a _____ environment.
You can be exposed to a contaminant in the following ways: .
the breathing in of airborne contaminates.
proper _____ or a _____ may help reduce inhalation (the breathing in of airborne contaminates).
_____ with a contaminant can be avoided with the use of gloves, even double gloving, safety glasses and protective clothing.
Skin contact with a contaminant can be avoided with the use of _____, _____, and _____.
Ingestion through the mouth is rare and can be prevented by _____ thoroughly before eating, and by keeping all food and beverages out of a _____.
can come from needle sticks or cuts from broken glass or metal.
Injection can come from needle sticks or cuts from broken glass or metal. Use _____ and wear protective _____ when handling such objects.
The concept of _____ refers to a standard or fundamental policy for infectious control developed by OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration).
The concept focused on blood borne pathogens and those occupations, such as law enforcement, which are at risk for exposure. .
The goal of any investigation is to _____.
Evidence comes in 5 forms:.
what kind of evidence is where information is reported to you by those who observed or experienced it.
what kind of evidence is actual tangible objects.
what kind of evidence has representations like drawings, maps, or photos used to illustrate.
what kind of evidence has things that you perceive yourself through your senses.
what kind of evidence is based on an inference ((single pieces of it alone are not adequate proof of the elements of a crime, however, taken together an accumulation of it can be adequate).
The reason that you gather evidence at a crime scene is
to determine _____ the crime,
to help _____ and apprehend the suspect, and
to _____ his or her guilt in court.
In either case, the following tasks must be accomplished in order with full documentation of who was assigned to each task and when it was begun and completed. .
when you take photographs of evidence, you want to take 3 types of photos.
As you begin these tasks, remember to .
to get a general idea of the scene and evidence available at the scen.
photos/videos have two key advantages:.
sketches are somewhat _____.
Here are some general guidelines:
Keep a _____ of every photograph taken. Include _____ and _____ of evidence.
Photograph _____ areas first.
Photograph everything more than once, from different _____ and _____.
Photograph evidence in place before it is _____ or _____.
Document _____ to the crime scene.
A crime scene search is a _____, _____, and _____ search by law enforcement officials to locate physical evidence.
The _____ should not begin until the crime scene sketch and any photography or videotaping have been completed.
Like the rest of crime scene processing, searching for evidence must be _____ and _____.
what are the 4 basic search patterns.
what search allows for a secondary search from each area (with two people).
how many people are used in a grid search.
what search is from inside out or outside in (use if one person).
how many people are used in a spiral search.
what search is two or more people search each area before moving to the next.
how many people are used in the strip/lane search.
what search is the area is divided into zones or quadrants, each is searched thoroughly.
The following are general guidelines for conducting a search of the crime scene:.
The purpose of a sketch is to document the _____, _____, and _____ of the scene, and the location of items within the crime scene, so that at trial, the scene can be effectively recreated.
Each object should be ______ - that is, located by two separate measurements from non-movable items, such as doors or walls.
The three primary purposes for evidence are
(1) to prove an _____
(2) to connect the _____ to a particular person or place
(3) to help _____ or _____ either the victim's or the suspect's account of the events
Essentially, proper handling comes down to making sure of two things:
(1) the evidence must be _____
(2) the _____ must be preserved.
Each package of evidence should be clearly marked with the _____, _____ of the item, and the _____ the evidence.
An inventory of every item secured as evidence should be _____ and _____ in your report.
The chain of custody refers to documenting who had custody of a piece of evidence throughout the _____, _____, and _____, until such time as there is authorization to dispose of the item.
A type of evidence relatively new to criminal investigation is _____.
As you secure, evaluate, and document the crime scene, if you encounter electronic evidence, follow these guidelines:
(1) Do not _____ the condition of any electronic devices. If it is off, leave it off. If it is on, leave it on.
(2) _____ the device.
(3) Identify _____ or _____ attached to devices.
Release the crime scene only after the _____.
Remember, once the scene has been released, reentry may require a _____.
When releasing the scene, Document the _____ of release, _____ it was released, and _____ it was released.
As first responding officer to a crime scene, you must _____.
Your first step at a crime scene is to _____ the scene by setting up a perimeter and limiting access of the walk-through.
Physical evidence is _____.
_____, _____, and _____ preservation and collection of evidence are critical to maintaining its value to the investigation.
The goal is to _____ the scene as it was when the crime took place so that it can be _____ in court.
Regardless of the type, each item must be properly packaged with _____, _____, and the _____ who secured it. .
Tactics of proactive policing can include 2 things.
reactive investigations can include
_____ witnesses and victims
_____ crime scenes for evidence
_____ and _____ evidence
_____ other information sources or records for pertinent information.
When you arrive at any emergency, you must quickly _____ if there is an _____ to any individuals present or to those still responding into the area. .
Threats can take 4 forms: .
You must make every effort to _____, _____, and _____ all persons in the area in order to ensure the scene is stablethe suspect may still be at the scene.
which comes first making the scene safe giving first aid to those inside the crime scene.
If a victim is seriously injured, but still alive, attempt to take a _____.
a statement made by a person who believes he or she is about to die, concerning the cause or circumstance surrounding his or her impending death.
what are the two types of investigations.
who does the preliminary investigations.
who does follow-up investigations.
major components of investigations
(1) _____ suspects
(2) _____ and _____ suspects
(3) prove the _____ of the suspects in court.
many factors can degrade the sample to a point where it is not usable.
Although _____ (the dead cannot testify in person) a dying declaration is admissible in court on the theory that a dying person has no reason not to tell the truth. .
The _____ is the immediate area where the crime was committed.
this perimeter must be large enough to protect any evidence that may exist.
Evidence can be lost by _____.
when two objects touch, tiny pieces of material on one object may be picked up by the other.
what kind of evidence are hair, fibers, powder, glass fragments, and so on can attach itself to the shoes or clothing of anyone walking through the crime scene.
The _____ is the surrounding area which includes any entry and exit points, or in the case of a shooting, any area where spent ammunition might be found.
The outer perimeter should be at least _____ larger than the inner perimeter.
The _____ perimeter should be at least 50% larger than the _____ perimeter.
For all operations associated with the investigation (such as fire rescue, supervisors, public information officer, other investigators, etc) there is also an _____, which includes the command post, staging areas, and so on.
Often the investigation is turned over to a detective/investigator. When that happens, your responsibility is to
_____ the assigned investigator
_____ in controlling the scene
Turn over _____ of the scene
_____ at the scene until relieved of duty.
a _____, where the muzzle is in contact with the body, may leave an impression made by the gases and the soot.
If the gun was fired close to the victim, the gunshot may cause _____ of the skin. .